Diamond is undoubtedly a gem of inestimable value which consists mainly of carbon but also of small amounts of other chemical elements. The amount of these chemicals can affect some important characteristics of the diamond , such as its color.
The most sought after diamonds are the colorless diamonds . It is the hardest mineral on the planet, as its value in the Mohs scale (scale for measuring the hardness of minerals) is 10, which is the higher value that a mineral can have on this scale.
The value of diamonds is determined by 4 factors. Their weight in carats , their clarity, the cut and their color. In the metric system, 1 carat is equal to 0.200 millimeters of gram.
The most well-known diamond cut is the brilliant cut, while the clarity of a diamond depends on the number of inclusions contained in it. Each factor is equally important in determining their value.
The diamond is formed inside the earth, at very high temperatures (1500-1800 degrees Celsius) and under high pressures (45 to 60 kbar). The relationship between temperature and pressure greatly influences the formation of the diamond.
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Read more about the diamond and its features here.